韩国教育热,是福?还是祸?值得我们思考!

教之有方 2017-02-20 11:13:06
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韩国教育热,是福?还是祸?值得我们思考! - 今日头条(www.toutiao.com) <script src="//s3.pstatp.com/toutiao/resource/ntoutiao_web/static/js/common/lib_c43f436.js"></script> 首页 / 教育 / 正文

韩国教育热,是福?还是祸?值得我们思考!

教之有方 2017-02-20 10:10

近几年来韩流对中国的影响使韩国这个国家走进了中国人的视野中,这个曾经的蕞尔小国如今成为在亚洲影响力较强的国家,与其教育是分不开的。

韩国的教育水平一直处于亚洲前列。但根据韩国政府最近的一项调查结果显示,在以OECD(经济合作与发展组织)国家为主的全球30个国家中,韩国儿童幸福指数排名垫底。而学业压力成为了影响幸福指数的罪魁祸首。

没有对教育的痴迷,韩国不可能成为今天的经济强国。--美国《时代》周刊

韩国人对教育的态度简直是狂热。自1962年,韩国民众从普遍文盲到识字率近98%,GDP增长了4000倍,一跃成为世界第13大经济体,比欧盟平均水平更富有。惊人的经济增长速度得益于巨大的教育投资。《爱尔兰时报》称,教育是韩国从经济废墟中崛起的决定性因素。近年来韩国教育水平飞跃式的发展,连盟友美国也不禁羡慕嫉妒恨。

韩国教育热,是福?还是祸?值得我们思考!

图为韩国和日本1997年至2012年GDP增长率的比较

(蓝线为韩国,红线为日本)

韩国学生在PISA(国际学生评估项目)的阅读、科学和数学测试中表现突出。2011年,韩国25~34岁的人口中,64%拥有大学学位,远高于OECD国家39%的平均水平。15~29岁未就业的韩国人中,11%正在准备专业考试。

连美国总统奥巴马盛赞韩国父母教育孩子的热情,并哀叹美国学生的落后。

丰硕的教育成果离不开韩国政府对教育的大力投入。目前,韩国6~16岁的孩子接受义务教育。2010年,韩国政府为教育投入国内生产总值的7.6%(OECD国家6.3%)。

韩国的教育制度既鼓舞人心,又令人生畏--英国《经济学人》杂志

即使政府如此重视教育,也不能满足韩国人爆棚的上进心。许多韩国家庭在课外补习班上的花费大到令人震惊的地步。

《纽约时报》称,已成“企业化规模”的补习班是“韩国教育体系的支柱”,75%的学生就读于全国10万个补习班。2012年,韩国在私人教育方面花费179亿美元,是家庭在教育上花费最多的国家。

在韩国生活多年的外国教师巴里·尤斯塔斯说,韩国人从学龄前就让孩子参加各种补习班,因为“要确保他们比隔壁孩子表现更好”。

这种情况从小学延续到高中,并愈演愈烈。

“我建议我的学生放弃补习班,将精力放到学校里,但如果孩子晚上不补课,家长会紧张焦虑。”高中英语教师韩允熙说,“他们知道其他学生在补课,他们必须相互竞争。” 家长间过度的竞争意识,给孩子的生活蒙上了巨大的阴影。

韩国学生平均每天学习13个小时,普通高中生每晚只睡5.5小时,确保有足够的时间学习。正规课堂外,私人补习班通常会持续至午夜甚至凌晨1点。

首尔富人区的补习学校女生表示,如果母亲消失,她会感到高兴,因为母亲只知道唠叨她的学习成绩。另一位高中女生则表示,她因学习压力过大脱发、失眠。

一些学校中,1/3的学生在老师讲课时睡觉,晚上再熬夜学习。礼品商店出售特殊的枕头,让趴在课桌上打盹的学生更舒适。

更令人不安的是,学生也倾向于将学习成绩视为自我价值的唯一源泉。2010年,自杀的13~19岁青年中,53%轻生的念头源于学习成绩不佳。

“韩国几乎没有自然资源,我们甚至没有太多土地,我们唯一拥有的资源是人,所以想要成功必须真正脱颖而出。作为母亲,我对这种情况感到很不舒服,但这是她实现梦想的唯一途径。”--黄伊娟接受英国广播公司(BBC)采访时说道

16岁的朴惠敏的生活时间表:

06.30,起床

08.00,到校

17.00,放学回家吃饭

19.00,补习班

21.00,自习

02.00,睡觉

这是韩国青少年最常见的时间安排。

有时,朴惠敏会感到筋疲力尽,但“只要看到好成绩就能忘了这一切”。母亲黄伊娟也担心女儿,但他们“别无选择”。

我们没有诺贝尔奖得主,但我们有很多三星中层经理。--韩国《朝鲜日报》记者苏·金

高强度、同质化的应试教育,虽然提高了人才的总体水平,但并没有让韩国涌现出各领域的领军人才。许多孩子在沉重的学业压力下,都不得不放弃了自己的兴趣爱好,甚至放弃了自己的梦想。他们缺少自己的想法,往往把父母所定义的“成功”当成了自己终身奋斗的目标。

“我们仍有很长的路要走,但我们正在反思。现在我们的目标是如何使人民更快乐。”—韩国教育科技部长李周浩

近年来,韩国政府开始完善相关的教育法规,来保障青少年的权益和身心健康。并组织取缔不符合规定,开班至深夜或凌晨的补习班。尽管如此,仍无法阻挡大部分家长对教育竞争的热衷,也并没有减少青少年的学业负担。

韩国教育热,是福?还是祸?值得我们思考!

韩国的教育现状只是东亚国家教育环境的一个缩影。

当教育成功被家长和社会定义为“成为别人家的孩子”时,给孩子带来的是巨大的竞争压力;但当其被定义为“实现自己的梦想”时,给孩子带来的就是实现梦想的幸福感。

或许当下的韩国教育环境,缺失的不是优质的教育资源,而是社会对成功标准的扭曲。

中国童鞋们的状况又何尝不是如此呢?

本文为头条号作者发布,不代表今日头条立场。

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中考,高考,教育,人文教育

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